Chōjū-jinbutsu-giga vers l'atelier du sculpteur
    Chōjū-jinbutsu-giga (鳥獣人物戯画, lit. "Animal-person Caricatures") 12th century and 13th century

The influence of e-maki 絵巻 on Manga

Okuno Takuji, a Japanese anthropologist suggests that the expressive techniques in Anime and Manga today derive from the traditional techniques, such as iji douzu (異時同図) and fukinuki yatai (吹抜屋台) in emakimono (絵巻物, lit. 'picture scroll', a horizontal, illustrated narrative form created during the 11th to 16th centuries), kibyōshi (黄表紙, lit. ‘yellow-backed covers’ a genre of Japanese picture book produced from 1775 to the early 19th century) and ukiyo-e (浮世絵 lit. "pictures of the floating world", woodblock prints produced between the 17th and the 20th centuries), and above all, the line drawing that differentiates Japan’s drawings from Western style paintings.

Emakimono or emaki combines both text and pictures, and is drawn, painted, or stamped on a paper or silk hand scroll―average around 30 cm (1 ft) long and 10 meters (33 ft) wide. They depict battles, romance, religion, folk tales, and stories of the supernatural world. It is seen as the origin of modern Manga. Chōjū-jinbutsu-giga (鳥獣人物戯画, lit. "Animal-person Caricatures"), commonly shortened to Chōjū-giga (鳥獣戯画, lit. "Animal Caricatures"), a famous set of four picture scrolls, or Emakimono were drawn in the mid-12th century, whereas the third and fourth scrolls date from the 13th century. Chōjū-jinbutsu-giga is credited as being the oldest work of Manga in Japan, and is a national treasure as well as many Japanese animators believe it is also the origin of Japanese animated movies. In Chōjū-jinbutsu-giga the animals were drawn with very expressive faces and also sometimes used "speed lines", a technique used in Manga until this day. The right-to-left reading direction of Chōjū-jinbutsu-giga is still a standard method seen in modern Manga and novels in Japan. The viewer, unrolling with the left hand while re-rolling with the right hand to expose about 30 cm (or a comfortable arm span) at a time, looks at the paintings from right to left in a temporal and spatial progression.

    Ban Dainagon Ekotoba (伴大納言絵詞 The Tale of Great Minister Ban) is a late 12th century emakimono (handscroll painting) depicting the events of the Ōtemmon Conspiracy, an event of Japan's early Heian period.

Iji douzu (異時同図)

Horizontal extension of emakimono enabled a description of complex story lines and dramatic images with temporal development. Iji douzu (異時同図) is a compositional method used to show successive events within a unified background, douzu (同図), capturing the same figure(s) in different actions overtime, iji (異時). A typical example is found in the scene of a boys' fight from the second scroll of Ban Dainagon ekotoba (伴大納言絵詞, The Story of the Courtier Ban Dainagon; 1170). As the hand scroll illustration unrolls, a man (the father) runs towards two boys grappling in a fight at the upper part of the scene. Below is a repeated depiction of the father, shown protecting his son by kicking off the other boy. Then at the upper left of the scene the embarrassed mother pulls the same son by the hand to return home. Thus three successive events are skillfully depicted in a circular composition within one setting, established here by buildings and curious onlookers. This method vividly suggests the passage of time within one frame of an illustration and was sometimes, employed in picture scrolls, emaki especially to depict action narrative. Okuno says that the method, similar to Anime who creates 3D world on 2D image by illustrating successive different aspects in a picture plane.

    The Genji Monogatari Emaki (源氏物語絵巻), also called The Tale of Genji Scroll, is a famous illustrated hand scroll of the Japanese literature classic The Tale of Genji from the 12th century, perhaps 1120-1140.

Fukinuki yatai (吹抜屋台)

The most outstanding Heian period example is the Genji monogatari emaki (源氏物語絵巻, Illustrated Hand scroll of the Tale of Genji) from the first half of the 12th century which exists in fragmentary form today. In the emaki, we can see a compositional technique used to depict a residential interior called Fukinuki yatai (吹抜屋台). Emakimono adopted downward view because of its vertical limitation; at the same time it gave objective and descriptive effect on emakimono. The technique involves rendering a building without a roof and ceiling so that the viewer looks inside from above, and can get the picture of a scene by seeing the position of characters. It is widely employed in Yamato-e (大和絵, classical Japanese style painting) in the Heian and Kamakura periods, especially in Emakimono illustrating classic novels, which include many scenes set inside aristocratic residences. Japanese Manga artists and animators often use this technique; remove ceiling, roof, or wall of buildings or mechas to offer a unique viewpoint that does not exist in the real world.

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