Managa is an art form in which expressive elements are highly integrated.

Ito Jyakucyu

Itō Jakuchū (伊藤 若冲, 1716–1800) was a Japanese painter of the mid-Edo period when Japan had closed its doors to the outside world.

Managa is an art form in which expressive elements: drawing, typography, graphic design, and panel layout are highly integrated. The expressive techniques hold true for Anime, and make it a sophisticated art form. In an extraordinary degree of expressive power of Manga and Anime that brings out the distinct mysteriously realistic 2D world, we can see the significant influences from certain aspects of the culture of the United States, like cartoons and animation, the traditional techniques characterized by omissions, exaggerations and details found in emakimono (絵巻物) in the 11th to 16th centuries to ukiyo-e (浮世絵) in the Edo period and the line drawing that differentiates Japanese drawings from Western style paintings.

Katsshika Hokusai

Katsushika Hokusai, 葛飾 北斎, October 31, 1760 (exact date questionable) – May 10, 1849) was a Japanese artist, ukiyo-e painter and printmaker of the Edo period.

Both traditional Japanese paintings, especially pre-modern ukiyo-e and post-WWII Manga and Anime are characterized by what artist Murakami Takashi branded “Superflat”: aesthetic two-dimensional forms, the absence of western notion of perspective. “It was evident in the traditional nihonga (日本画, Japanese Painting) in which Murakami himself received PhD from the Tokyo National University of Fine Arts and Music in the ukiyo-e prints of Hiroshige; it pervaded the fantasy worlds of manga and anime; and it informed the work of a new generation of artists, illustrators, designers, and animators whose products were showcased in the Superflat exhibition curated by Murakami,” Kitty Hauser, a postdoctoral research fellow of the University of Sydney says, Superflat “is graciously and knowingly amenable to art historical, cultural, theoretical, and non-theoretical readings alike. Murakami positions it within a history of art in which it is the successor to both Japanese visual traditions and Western Pop art, while also displaying an insider's knowledge of so-called otaku subcultures.”

—ODAKANE Fuji

Feature Story

  • 虫プロダクション

    American influence on Amime & Manga

    Tezuka,'the father of manga' and 'the god of comics'loved the Disney stories and illustrations so much, he copied them line for line.

  • The traditional techniques

    Okuno Takuji, a Japanese anthropologist suggests that the expressive techniques in Anime and Manga today derive from the traditional techniques.

  • The ukiyo-e (浮世絵 perspective

    With the rise of popular culture in the Edo period, a style of woodblock prints called ukiyo-e characterized by the aesthetic two-dimensional forms, the absence of western notion of perspective became a major art form.

  • 高橋留美子/小学館・サンライズ

    The traditional line drawing technique

    Among Japanese traditional art techniques, line drawing has fundamental impact on today's Manga and Anime. "Drawn only with outlines, Manga who inherits the characteristic of Japanese-style painting made up of lines seem three-dimensional.

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